Mangalore VAR Approach Chart - 1967

The Instrument Approach Chart below shows the Mangalore, Vic, VAR Approach at 1 May 1967.

The procedure commenced from outbound on the Mangalore VAR (MN) 036 degree visual course. One minute after passing the Monea fan marker, a left procedure turn was commenced and the aircraft descended to 2,500ft. On completion of the turn and established inbound on the VAR 036 degree course, descent could be continued to 2,000ft. After passing the Monea marker inbound, final approach could be commenced, descending to a minimum of 1,300ft by day or 1,500ft by night.

If necessary, holding could be done at Monea in a right hand pattern, but a right procedure turn was required to commence the approach.

The design of the approach and the presentation of the chart are both of considerable interest. In common with nearly all non-precision instrument approaches of the era (i.e. VAR and NDB), the approach relies on procedure turns to establish the aircraft on the final approach course. Procedure turns were eliminated from instrument approaches in the early 1990s in favour of 'teardrop' procedures. The design of the VAR, however, required the use of procedure turns as accurate track guidance could only be provided when established on one of the visual or aural legs. For more about the operational use of VAR beacons, see here.

The chart itself has certain features that are more advanced than those in use today. Firstly, it was printed in colour. Secondly, the terrain presentation, especially elevation data, is much more detailed than that found on present-day instrument approach charts. The inclusion of a nearby-terrain profile on the elevation part of the approach chart is of particular note and would have considerably enhanced terrain awareness.



Rotating Aerodrome BeaconFire StationPassenger TerminalControl Tower cabVHF antennaanemometer

(Chart: Mac Job collection. Original 200 x 265 mm)

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